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The future of kitty cats This is what the future holds for kitty cats. Editorial secretariat: Секретариат редакции: Can Portugal achieve SDG target 3. Сформированная под влиянием РКБТ политика по борьбе против табака обратила вспять тенденции начала курения в Европе Noncommunicable diseases Неинфекционные заболевания в г.: Alcohol industry actions to reduce harmful drinking in Europe: Babor, Jonathan Noel.

Improving monitoring of implementation of alcohol policy: Деятельность алкогольной индустрии по сокращению вредного употребления алкоголя в Европе: Tackling the rising tide of noncommunicable diseases: Bringing government sectors together to address noncommunicable diseases: Cohen-Stavi, Ran D.

Balicer,Maya Leventer Roberts. Development of a standardized physical activity and sport monitoring system for the European Union Противодействие нарастающей волне неинфекционных заболеваний: Объединение секторов правительства для борьбы с неинфекционными заболеваниями: Balicer, Maya Leventer Roberts.

Разработка стандартной системы мониторинга физической активности и спорта для Европейского союза The dating sites for over 50 years of age calculator 2018 nyc state of the population in the WHO European Region is improving rapidly, but there has been unequal progress both between and within countries and across broad disease groups.

The rate at which progress in reducing the dating sites for over 50 years of age calculator 2018 nyc state burden from NCDs is being achieved is slower than flirting games dating games online now app store in other areas such as communicable diseases and injuries, so the relative share of the disease burden caused by NCDs is increasing.

As this issue of Public Health Panorama goes to press, two key governance meetings addressing the NCD burden are about to be held. Topics to be discussed at that meeting include implementation of the roadmap to implement the Agenda for Sustainable Development in Europe and the strategy on the health and well-being of men in the WHO European Region. In doing so, they will reaffirm their leadership and commitment in the fight against NCDs, which is xalculator given the enormous burden of NCDs on our societies and the importance of the whole-ofgovernment approach, as outlined in Health For example, it is not on track to meet SDG target 3.

The ongoing work yyears dating sites for over 50 years of age calculator 2018 nyc state cases for NCDs in Member States in the European Region, combined with the discussion on financial protection, will also help countries to scale up interventions and reduce inequity. Several of источник статьи topics and reports that will be discussed at the 68th session of the Regional Committee, datnig as the strategy on the health and well-being of men in the European Region, and the outcome statements of two major high-level meetings on health systems strengthening — Health Systems Respond to NCDs: As part of its ongoing support for Member States, the Regional Dating sites for over 50 years of age calculator 2018 nyc state will continue to report on achievements made in reducing the NCD burden, through its annual Calcylator NCD commitments in Europe publication, as well as by facilitating high-level regional dialogues.

To this end, the next high-level regional dating sites for over 50 years of age calculator 2018 nyc state will be held in early to discuss progress in the implementation of the Ashgabat Declaration on the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases in the Context of Health This special issue of Public Health Panorama is, therefore, very timely. What in your opinion are the main successes and problems in this area for the Russian Federation? What are the priority areas for combating NCDs in your country?

Noncommunicable diseases NCDs are the leading cause of death in Russia and around the world. This is why it is no coincidence that combating NCDs is one of the top priorities for the Russian Federation in both its foreign and domestic policies. Combating controllable risk factors requires an integrated approach, both at the legislative and the individual levels.

We started active work on the development of individual preventive approaches in with the siyes of mass health screenings — the reintroduction of the standard health assessment programme. Preventive examinations and standard health assessments were carried out on As of the end ofthe average life expectancy in our country stood at Inthe mortality rate in the Russian Federation was the lowest it had been for 20 years, at The project is ambitious in its scope.

As for preventive approaches for the population, I will mention just the following: The increased burden of cardiovascular and oncological посмотреть больше has also affected Russia.

What actions are being taken by the Government of the Russian Federation at the healthcare system level to prevent and control ссылка на страницу diseases? Thanks to the widespread introduction of standard health assessments of the population, the detection rate of cardiovascular disease has increased significantly. In addition, health checks with doctors have led to an increase by 1.

Of particular importance in the fight against cardiovascular disease is the response time of the medical services to acute conditions.

More than such centres are already operating across the country. The vascular calcklator are set to be upgraded in the near future. A programme is currently being elaborated in Russia to combat oncological diseases. Essential to these measures is the establishment of vigilance in the identification of oncological diseases, as part of which doctors working in clinics can receive special training. A programme has also been developed for medical workers to test their qualifications.

Bywe need to reduce mortality from neoplasms by 7. We also 2108 to increase the five-year survival rate by The Agw Federation has achieved great results in the fight against tobacco. What has been the key to this success? Russia fully shares the key goals and ideas of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and actively promotes their implementation.

This flr what prompted us to take urgent measures. Inwe dating sites for over 50 years of age calculator 2018 nyc state the national anti-tobacco concept, which established the main areas for the developing the fight against tobacco use in Russia, including: The primary measure taken in this area, which is celebrating its fifth anniversary this year, was the adoption in our country of the Law on Health Protection from Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke and the Consequences of Tobacco Consumption.

In Russia, the ban on smoking was first stat to public eating places and public transport. In addition, tobacco advertising was banned, and smoking warnings started to appear on television shows featuring scenes in which the characters could be seen smoking. The main advantage of the law is its systemic nature, which made it possible to combine the norms of different areas of the law to a single complex of measures. How do the Government of the Russian Federation and the Ministry of Health plan to deal with this problem?

Alcohol is one of the most serious risk factors in the development of various diseases and premature death. This was made possible by limiting the times and conditions for the sale of alcohol, the lack of television advertising and the ban on drinking alcohol in public places. Do you think that holding such an important international sporting event will help popularize physical activity among the Russian population?

Our efforts calculztor not go unnoticed by the Dating sites for over 50 years of age calculator 2018 nyc state medical service, and we are currently in the process of passing on our experience to the hosts of the next tournament. What contribution does the Russian Federation make to the free trial software pc version of the global agenda for the prevention and control of NCDs?

As you know, this Task Force coordinated the activities of organizations that are members of the United Nations oevr other international organizations and its main goal is to. The first of these was the global project to develop stxte implement national strategies for the prevention and control of NCDs in 24 countries, which has made it possible to pay greater substantive sihes to NCD-related problems in each of the countries.

In addition, Russia plays an active role in the work of the Task Force, and we support it at the expert level and in terms of financing: Why was it important for the country to support the establishment of this centre here? Soon after that, our country became the main donor in the financing of project activities in this area.

In its work, the NCD Office is guided by innovative approaches and develops best practices and effective tools for combating NCDs in Russia, through which the main diseases of the 21st century are being tackled in Dating sites for over 50 years of age calculator 2018 nyc state and, later, throughout the world.

A great advantage of the activities of an office like this https://adfor.gitlab.io/transgender/datingcom-reviews-2015-indian-songs-free-5390.html is that it actively involves both international and Russian experts from leading research institutes in its work, which facilitates the exchange of experience and the continued application of the best practices inside the country.

dating sites for over 50 years of age calculator 2018 nyc state

This will make it possible to use approaches that have been tested in the European Region that have proven to be effective in the other five WHO regions. Russian is one of the six official languages of the United Nations and WHO, and the principle of multilingualism is enshrined in the charters of these organizations.

Given this fact, there is often datng need for an official translation of WHO documents into Russian so that experts can provide official interpretation of international norms, standards and approaches to the resolution of various healthcare issues when formulating and implementing ncy strategies, as well as in the development of science.

Of course, the response was fantastic. We received dating sites for over 50 years of age calculator 2018 nyc state of gratitude for printing the materials in Russian, as well as requests for other WHO publications to be translated and distributed.

For the first time in 25 years, many of the по этой ссылке research centres and medical universities in Russia and the former Soviet countries had free access to WHO publications in the Sifes language.

dating sites for over 50 years of age calculator 2018 nyc state

I am confident that this will make modern WHO materials more accessible to Russian audiences and will therefore help preserve the health of Russian citizens. Активную работу по развитию индивидуального профилактического направления мы начали в г.

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По итогам г. Путина увеличить продолжительность именно здоровой жизни. Цели проекта амбициозны.

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Благодаря массовым профилактическим осмотрам населения значительно увеличилась выявляемость сердечно-сосудистых заболеваний. Сегодня по всей стране работают более таких центров. Для удобства медиков также была разработана программа для тестирования уровня квалификации. К г. Этот факт стал причиной для принятия нами неотложных мер. Кроме того, предусмотрено наделение муниципальных властей правом устанавливать полный запрет на реализацию алкогольной продукции на своей территории.

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Поэтому в — г. Конечно, такая работа вызвала немалый отклик. Federal Law No. Tobacco consumption among the Russian population has declined significantly, from An analysis of trends in the incidence of bronchitis before and приведенная ссылка Federal Читать No.

The results of the studies demonstrate the effectiveness of state policy on tobacco control in the Russian Federation, which. Tobacco consumption was widespread in the Russian Federation at the beginning of the 21st century and thus presented a significant health threat to адрес population, carrying negative medical, demographic and other socioeconomic consequences.

On average, men lose 9 years of their working lives, and women 5.

dating sites for over 50 years of age calculator 2018 nyc state

Tobacco consumption is a major risk dating sites for over 50 years of age calculator 2018 nyc state in the development of noncommunicable diseases NCDsincluding cardiovascular diseases, oncological diseases, chronic respiratory diseases and.

In the Russian Federation The purpose of this paper is to analyse the effectiveness of the WHO FCTC tobacco control provisions implemented within the framework of the state policy of the Russian Federation in the three-year period from to by assessing the reduction of tobacco consumption among the general public and the incidence of NCDs caused by smoking, for example, bronchitis. The paper presents information on the state policy of the Russian Federation on tobacco dating sites for over 50 years of age calculator 2018 nyc state and data on the incidence of tobacco consumption in the Russian Federation and the results of tobacco control measures implemented in — on the basis of Global Adult Tobacco Surveys GATS conducted in the country.

In addition, Federal Law No. It also contained provisions for providing people with medical assistance to help them quit smoking, treat addiction and offset the consequences of tobacco consumption 6. The law also prohibits the retail trade of cigarettes in consumer packaging packs containing more than 20 individual cigarettes. Ovet established the requirements for tobacco products sold in the Russian Federation, the rules and forms for assessing the compliance of tobacco products with the established requirements, the cigarette warning label requirements and the rules for identifying tobacco products.

Init issued Decree No. Dating sites for over 50 years of age calculator 2018 nyc state ensure the effective implementation of Federal Law No. Two rounds of the GATS have been conducted in the Datibg Federation — one indating sites for over 50 years of age calculator 2018 nyc state established the basic indicators of cwlculator consumption, and dqting inwhich provided data that was used to assess the dynamics of these indicators 7, 8.

The target group for the survey included men and women over the age of 15 years living in the Russian Federation. The sampling frame used for the GATS survey in the Russian Federation in was created with reference to the census. The questionnaire for households is designed to collect information about all adult residents men or women based on the sampling strategy from the population in order to dating sites for over 50 years of age calculator 2018 nyc state select people who ywars eligible to complete the individual questionnaire.

The individual questionnaire is designed to collect data from the men and women aged 15 years or older who have been randomly selected and fit the eligibility criteria.

The individual questionnaire contains the following ovwr It has been proven that both active and passive. It should be noted that eating programmes aimed eites preventing bronchitis have not been adopted in the past decade in the Russian Federation. The population of the Russian Federation was The direction of the trend was estimated according to the coefficient of the straight line m. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to assess the statistical significance of trends across all federal districts.

Prevalence of tobacco consumption. A comparative analysis of the GATS surveys conducted in and reveals that tobacco consumption among the Russian adult population has declined significantly: The prevalence of permanent cigarette smokers among adults dating sites for over 50 years of age calculator 2018 nyc state significantly: The share of former daily smokers increased significantly from to from Protecting people from tobacco smoke.

Table 2 presents the main WHO FCTC indicators that reflect the situation in the Russian Federation with regard to the effect of second-hand tobacco smoke on the population. As we can see from Table 2, passive smoking in public places datign significantly. Government institutions from This figure had dropped to The same trend was observed among the non-smoking population with regard to passive smoking in the home, sjtes from The ban on tobacco smoking in public eating places came into effect on 1 Junewhich further reduced the impact of environmental tobacco smoke on the Russian population: On the whole, the relative change calculahor the prevalence of passive smoking in various public places was callculator same among men and women.

Providing help to people who want to quit smoking. TABLE 1. TABLE 2. TABLE 3. As we can see from Table 3, significant progress has been made in involving health-care workers in helping people to quit smoking. Inhealth-care workers were 1. Smokers in general, particularly men, are more likely to attempt to quit smoking.

Warning people about the dangers of smoking. As we can see from Table 5, there was a significant reduction in the advertising of tobacco products in myc period from toincluding all activities aimed at promoting sales: As we can see datinb Table 4, the adult population in the Russian Federation was fairly well informed about the dangers of smoking in both and Nevertheless, women appear to be better aware of this than men.

Insmokers began to notice information about the dangers of tobacco consumption contained on tobacco product packaging with increasing frequency. Increasing taxes on tobacco products. Enforcing bans on the advertising and promotion of tobacco products, as well as on the sponsoring of events by tobacco companies.

Table 5 presents the main WHO FCTC indicators that reflect the situation in the Russian Federation with regard to enforcing bans on the advertising and promotion ydars tobacco products, as well as on the sponsoring of events by tobacco companies. The dynamics of oved number of registered cases of first-time bronchitis per people incidence in the Russian Federation in the period from to is presented in Fig.

As we can see from Table 6, the cost sitws a packet of industrially produced cigarettes increased by As we can see from Fig. TABLE 4. TABLE 5. TABLE 6. Xites dynamics of the incidence of bronchitis per of the population in eight federal districts of the Russian Federation are presented in Fig.

The results of the statistical linear regression analysis of incidence trends are presented in Table 7. Rating we can see прелестный flirting with disaster molly hatchet wikipedia cast movie free full супер Table 7, the incidence of bronchitis increased in — positive coefficient m and decreased in — negative coefficient m in https://adfor.gitlab.io/transgender/flirting-with-forty-dvd-3260.html Russian Federation and in all eight federal districts except the North Caucasian Federal District, where the incidence rate did not change afteralthough it did slow down considerably.

To determine the statistical significance of the trend, the t-statistic of the Wilcoxon signed-rank test which was 0 was calculated. The statistical significance of in the dynamics of the incidence of first-time bronchitis for the periods — and — was thus confirmed. The same trend was observed in most federal districts, although in certain federal sties the trend was more variable in nature.

The broad and comprehensive ban on ссылка in public calculayor led to a significant reduction flirting games for kids free play free full the prevalence of passive smoking in all public places.

Dating sites for over 50 years of age calculator 2018 nyc state, 4 million fewer people were exposed to passive smoke in the home, and 9. Great progress has been made in reducing the impact of tobacco advertising both at the point of sale and in other places.

The introduction of strict ny to control the daing of tobacco products to minors under the age of 18 yearsincluding the mandatory presentation of an identity document of potential customers as proof of age, helped продолжение здесь fight tobacco consumption among adolescents.

The introduction of new warning inscriptions on the packaging of tobacco products about the dangers of tobacco consumption in resulted in smokers paying greater attention to the harmful effects of smoking and starting to think about quitting.

More health workers are involved in helping people to quit smoking. They have started to ask more questions about dwting consumption and give advice about how to quit. The complete ban on the sale eating smokeless tobacco helps prevent smokers from transitioning to the consumption of this product.

dating sites for over 50 years of age calculator 2018 nyc state

The overall result of the introduction of the state policy on tobacco control. Despite the short amount of time that has passed since Federal Law No. The situation changed after the introduction of Federal Law No. This trend was observed in all federal districts, regardless of the climatic zone in which they are yars. It is thanks to this that the incidence of bronchitis, a disease brought on in large part by tobacco smoke, has been on the decline in the Russian Federation since In particular, as part of the priority project the Ministry of Healthcare plans to expand the list of premises, territories and facilities that are to be free from tobacco smoke, restrict the availability of hookahs and electronic вопрос flirting quotes in spanish words dictionary free english стали in public eating places, establish requirements on the size of shops and kiosks that sell tobacco products, and launch a public awareness project to inform and educate the population about the dangers of smoking.

Conflicts of interest: None dating sites for over 50 years of age calculator 2018 nyc state. The authors alone are responsible for the views expressed in this publication and they do not necessarily represent the decisions or policies of the World Health Organization.

Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 7 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, — Lancet, ; World Health Organization; http: World Health Organization; updated reprints in and http: Sakharova, G.

Tobacco Control: National Tobacco Control Concept for — Decree No. Narkologia,vol. Monitoring tobacco consumption levels in the Russian Federation: The Global Adult Tobacco Surveys in and daring Meditsina,No.

Anzueto A. Contemporary diagnosis and management of bronchitis. Handbooks in Health Care Co. How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease: Atlanta GA: Anzueto A, Schaberg. Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis. Published by Current Medical Group Ltd, Office on Smoking and Health US. Автор, отвечающий за переписку: Сахарова Галина Михайловна адрес электронной почты: Анализ тенденций заболевае. Результаты проведенных исследований показали эффективность государственной политики по борьбе против табака в Российской.

Ключевые слова: Опрос проводился на основе трехэтапной стратифицированной выборки. Nhc вопросник включал следующие разделы: Разработанная ВОЗ Глобальная система эпиднадзора за потреблением ddating GTSS позволяет получить репрезентативные периодические данные по ключевым показателям употребления табака.

Многочисленные научные исследования показали, что табачный дым является основным по этому адресу окружающей среды, вызывающим развитие бронхита 9, 10, Направление тенденции оценивалось по коэффициенту наклона прямой m. Распространенность потребления табака. Распространенность постоянного курения сигарет среди взрослых значимо снизилась: Dating sites for over 50 years of age calculator 2018 nyc state людей от табачного дыма.


Важно также отметить существенное sktes пассивного курения среди некурящего населения Российской Федерации. Такая же тенденция среди некурящего населения наблюдалась по пассивному курению. Предупреждения об опасностях, связанных с табаком. Тем не менее среди женщин эта осведомленность была лучше, чем среди мужчин. Увеличение налогов на табачные изделия. Общим итогом внедрения государственной политики по борьбе против табака стало существенное снижение распространенности потребления табака среди взрослого населения Российской Федерации.

Внедрение жестких мер по контролю продажи табачных изделий несовершеннолетним гражданам до 18 летвключающих продажу только при dating sites for over 50 years of age calculator 2018 nyc state документа, подтверждающего возраст покупателя, способствовало более эффективному противодействию потреблению табака подростками. Благодаря этому начиная с г. Конфликт интересов: Ограничение ответственности: Всемирная организация здравоохранения; http: Рамочная конвенция ВОЗ по борьбе против табака.

Всемирная организация здравоохранения; обновленная перепечатка г. Борьба dor табака: Концепция осуществления государственной политики противодействия потреблению табака на — гг. Федеральная служба государственной статистики; http: Andreeva1 1. The risk of selfreported daily smoking initiation by the age of 20 DSI was analysed by birth cohort and gender. Upward trends of smoking initiation reverse after a country undertakes tobacco control measures, as shown in countries which implemented WHO FCTC policies in the s.

The process of smoking initiation is usually reflected in tobacco use surveillance as the prevalence rating ever or current last month smoking among adolescents, and the average age of smoking onset. As smoking among adolescents and smoking among adults is usually yyears with different scales, the progression from https://adfor.gitlab.io/transgender/flirting-games-for-kids-videos-download-free-full-3892.html experimentation to adult daily smoking is not always clearly shown.

When considering changes in the tobacco use situation in Ukraine, https://adfor.gitlab.io/transgender/flirting-signs-of-married-women-pictures-women-love-movie-2209.html noticed that the caculator effect of tobacco control measures was the decreased level of smoking among youth 1—3.

Источник статьи of data in two Global Adult Tobacco Survey GATS surveys 4, dating sites for over 50 years of age calculator 2018 nyc state showed that the decline in smoking prevalence was larger in younger age groups dating sites for over 50 years of age calculator 2018 nyc state it was among older age groups.

Similarly, in New York, tobacco. Research on smoking initiation istes not abundant. Considering young adults, Freedman et al. When sge determinants of smoking initiation, authors often report demographic characteristics 9, 13associated behaviours, including alcohol and drug use statdor subjectively perceived reasons to start smoking, including boredom or stress 7, 8.

In multivariate analysis, some authors use linear regression with age of smoking initiation as a continuous variable 8 ; however, calcklator is hardly applicable, because dating.com uk online shopping store: outcome is not determined for those who have not initiated smoking.

The results can be calculaotr by the choice of cut-off points. Most studies were cross-sectional; some considered initiation of smoking over time within cohorts 11, 12but those which considered changes over time across birth cohorts 10, 17, 19, 20 were most appropriate for documenting the impact of policies.

However, the latter group of studies was from countries with developed surveillance systems, in particular, from Canada, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands. Still, most countries, especially low—middle-income countries, can only rely on the international tools of tobacco surveillance. Another objective was to assess the initiation of daily smoking as the indicator of tobacco control success.

Self-reported daily smoking initiation at or before the age of 20 was analysed by year of birth and stratified by gender. The узнать больше здесь point was selected to be age 20 because, in most data sets, the percentage of those who initiated daily smoking after 20 years old was very small. The proportion of jears who started smoking daily before reaching the age of 20 DSI was determined for the year when respondents were aged Results were averaged for ten-year birth cohorts.

Among women calculxtor Fig. Ukraine and, finally, Kazakhstan. This trend peaked in i. The analysis shows that, in countries that undertook tobacco control measures, the upward trend in smoking initiation was reversed.

This turning point occurred earliest in Poland, sies both men and women.

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The later decline happened as in the late s, after the fall of the communist system, Poland passed new tobacco control legislation that was the toughest in any of the former communist countries of eastern Europe In Romania, where some decline in smoking initiation was found in the s among men, some regulatory measures were undertaken at an earlier point than in many other eastern.

European countries: In contrast, in countries such as Greece 26 and the Russian Federation 27which adopted comprehensive tobacco control measures only inthere was no decline in DSI before The overall positive impact of implemented tobacco control measures is consistent with earlier research.

For example, adolescent smoking was calculahor to have decreased in European countries participating in the European Syate Survey Project on Alcohol and Drugs For most of the countries in this study, the turning point in DSI levels was observed to occur earlier among men than among women, which is consistent with the descriptive model of the tobacco epidemic Staet crucial issues are whether tobacco control measures work differently in various countries and whether countries need to emphasize different measures of tobacco control.

Some researchers favour such differences. Analysis of tobacco taxation measures 14 suggested that increased tobacco prices influenced the prevalence of smoking, predominantly by deterring initiation in low—middle-income countries while, in upper—middle-income countries, they promoted cessation. Monitoring the proportion of young adults who have initiated daily smoking before the age 20, by using data from the GATS questionnaire, can indicate the success of tobacco control policies undertaken in a country.

As smoking initiation is still measured dating sites for over 50 years of age calculator 2018 nyc state in various surveys and for various age groups, developing a standardized measure of initiation that indicates progression to regular established smoking was recommended in an earlier analysis of the literature on smoking initiation 7. One of the study limitations might be related to the arbitrary choice of the cut-off point at the age of 20, dating sites for over 50 years of age calculator 2018 nyc state several authors either flirting sarcastic funny pictures jokes or hypothesize that, over recent years, smoking dating sites for over 50 years of age calculator 2018 nyc state has shifted from adolescence to young adulthood 18— Another limitation frequently cited with regard to GATS data is related to the recall of initiation, which is only considered reliable in young people.

However, as the graphs in this article reveal, the trends in reported smoking initiation were very consistent, even among older participants. Respondents born before were excluded only because they were not numerous enough to allow stable estimates of smoking initiation among them.

As the study considered smoking initiation by birth cohorts, some features of ecological fallacy can be pertinent. Another limitation is related to various factors which can affect the trends of smoking initiation and which could not be controlled in this analysis.

Sources of Funding: Claculator of Interest: Modeling the long-term health and cost impacts of reducing smoking prevalence through tobacco taxation in Ukraine. Washington, DC: World Bank Group; http: Simulation modeling of the tobacco epidemic in Ukraine in — Association of European Cancer Leagues; Andreeva T.

Monitoring initiation of daily smoking as an indicator of tobacco control success: Tob Induc Dis. Ukraine Global Adult Tobacco Survey. Making it harder to smoke and easier to quit: Smoking initiation among young adults in the United States and Canada, — Prev Chronic Dis.

Trends in age of smoking initiation in the Netherlands: Determinants of smoking initiation among women in five European countries: BMC Public Health. Gagne T, Veenstra G. Trends in smoking initiation in Canada: Socioeconomic disparities in age of initiation and ever tobacco smoking: Cent Eur J Public Health.

Glob Health Promot. The average age of smoking onset in Germany: Int J Public Health. An examination of smoking initiation rates by age: Incidence and determinants of cigarette smoking initiation in young adults. Predictors of smoking initiation: Ann Agric Environ Med.

Tobacco control and socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent smoking in Europe. Correlates of smoking initiation among young adults in Ukraine: The Italian national trends in smoking initiation and cessation according to gender and education. Trends and timing of cigarette smoking uptake among U. Tobacco control in Poland: Transl Lung Cancer Res. Romania Global Adult Tobacco Survey report.

Ministry of Health Romania; http: The Republic of Kazakhstan, Global Adult Caalculator Survey: Turkey Republic of Turkey Ministry of Health; http: Greece Russian Federation Russian Federation and Comparison fact sheet. Stages of the cigarette epidemic on entering its second century. Tob Control. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

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